- Μετάβαση σε μια πράσινη Ελλάδα 2010- 2020 - http://www.diavouleusi.eliamep.gr -

Κλιματικές αλλαγές, ενέργεια και το Σύστημα Εμπορίας Εκπομπών – Η αναγκαιότητα σχεδιασμού ενός ολοκληρωμένου συστήματος πολιτικών

1. ?????????? ?????????

 

1.1. ????????? ??????????

??? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????????, there [1] ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? (???????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????) ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????: ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????, and [2] ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????.

?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? (?????????????)

?? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????, more [3] ??? ??????? ???????? , ????????? ?? ?? ?????? , ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ????. ?????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????, ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ??????, ??? ???? ?????? ??????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????.

?????? ?????????

?) ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????.

?1) ???????????? ???

?2) ???????? ???????????? ?????????.

?) ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????.

?1) ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???

?2) ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????????.

?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????, ???? ????? ? ??????????? ? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???.

?1). ???????????? ?????????.

????????? ??? ??? “?????” ??????????, ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ??? 1000 EU ??? ?.?. ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ????????? (15-20%). ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? – ????, ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?? ??????????, ??? ?? ???? ???, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????, ??? ?? ?????? ?? 20% ????? ?? 2020.

?????? ?????? ?? ???????????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????, ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???. ? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?? ???????? Albeido ?ffect, ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? 80% ??? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????? -??????, ??? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????. ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????, ??? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????.

??????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ??? ????? ?????? ?? “???????? ????????????-??????? ?????????” (?2), ???? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????????? [PV Technology, Markets and Trends, 4-5 ????????? 2010], ???? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ????????.

?1) ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????????

????????? ??? ??? “?????????” ??? ??? “?????”, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? (??? 80 Co), ?? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????, ???? ?????????, ?.?., ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????/????????????. ?? ??????? ???? ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? (70-80%).

?????? ??? ?? ??????????, ??? ? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ????, ????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? (??????? ??????? ?????????? / absorption heat pumps ).

?2) ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? (>600 Co ).

?? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ????????, ??????? ?? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?.?. ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????. ?? ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??? ???? ???, ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? (??. “thermal solar 1” ??? Edison ? ?? ????????? ????????? “Sahara project”). ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? «stirling system P2», ?????????? ??????????? (?? ????????? ???.).

1.2. ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????.

? ????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ?) ??? (?2) ????????? ????????????? ??????????, ??? ?) ??? (?1) ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?) ??? ??? (?2) ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? (>600 Co) ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ????? ??????????? – ??? ??????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???? ???.

?? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????:

2. ?? ????????? ??? ????????- ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????

2.1.??????? 1:

«????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ???????»

 

2.1.1. ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????:

???????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? «?rompe», ???? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?? 1881 ??? ??? E. Morse ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? 1964 ??? ??? ??????????? Felix Trompe.

?? ????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????, ?????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ???????????.

?? ??????? ????, ?? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???? ???, ?????, ?? ? ?? ???? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????????????? ????? ???????????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ???.

? ????????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?rompe, ??? ???????????, ???? ?? ???????? ??????????????:

?) ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????, ??? ???????????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????,

?) ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? (????),

?) ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ( 20 ???? ??? ?.?.),

?) ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? (60 ??? ??? 80% ??? ????????????? ??????? ?????????).

2.1.2. ? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????????:

? ????????? ??? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ????:

?) ???? ????? «?????????» ??????????? ???????? ????????, ? ????? ??????????? ????????? (??. ???. 1) ??? ??? ???? ? ???????? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? (1), ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ????? (2) ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? (3) ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? (4). ?? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??????????? ????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????, ??? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??? ???? ???. ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????: ? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????????????? (???????????? ?????????-?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???????????), ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ? ???????? /??????? ??? ?? ????????????, ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? (????), ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ????????? (???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????).

???. 1 ???? ??? ????????????? ??????????.

[4]

???. 2. ???????? ?? ????????.
[5]

???. 3. ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????.

[6]

2.1.3. ????????????? ??? ????????:

???????????? ? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ???????????, ???? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????:

1. ?? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? (?????????????), ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? (?????).

2.?? ????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ‘?????????’ ??????? ?? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???, ????????, ??? ??????????. ??, ???????, ? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ?? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ???, ????????????? ??? ????? ???? ? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????, ???? ??? ? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????.

2.1.4. ?????????? ??? ????????:

??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????.

 

2.1.5. A??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????:

? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????????? ????????? ?? 6–12 ?????.

??????? 2:

«?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????, ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????. »
[7]

2.2.1. ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????:

? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????????????? ???? ???????, ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????. ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????, ???? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????, ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????.

 

2.2.2. ? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????????:

?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????, ?? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????. ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ??????????, ????????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????????. ? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????.

???? ??????, ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ????, ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????, ???? ????????? ?????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ????. ????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????, ???? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????.

?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????, ????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????. ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ???? ????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????, ???? ????????????. ????? ???? ?? ??????????, ??????????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? (?.?. ????????????????? ????????????).

2.2.3. ????????????? ??? ????????:

??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ?????, ???????? ?????? / ?????? ????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? (?????, ?????????, ???), ?????? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????, ????? ???, ???????????, ????????? ??? ????????????????? ????????????.

2.1.4. ?????????? ??? ????????:

?? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????, ????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????, ???? ???????????.

??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????.

2.1.5. ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????:

? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?? 12–24 ?????, ??????? ?? ??? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????.

3. ?????????.
?????????: ?? ??????? «Stirling P2»
[8]

The Stirling system P2 is a solar one with an electrical output power of 800 W, driven by concentrated solar heat radiation. The entire installation is mobile. An automatic tracking system is adjusting the concentrator to the sun. The solar system is equipped with an integrated alternator. It delivers up to 6.4 kWh per day electrical energy, sufficient for the needs of a small household. Due to its coolant circuit, the system provides as well the supply of hot water corresponding to a heat amount of 24 kWh per day, which is equivalent to the heat generation of 6 m² solar thermal collector area. Here, all predicted power and energy data of the P2 engine are referred to a solar direct radiation of 1 kW/m². Both systems are based on the same basic Stirling engine. The costs of this engine are significantly lower than other solutions on the market. The design is protected by several patents.

?) ????????? ?????? ??????????

?????? ????????????

?????? ??????: ?? ??????, ?? ???? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???????????, ?? ????? ????????????? ???? ?? ??????/ ????????? ????????? ????????? ?/??? ?????????. ?? ???, ???? ?????, ??? ???? ???????, ?? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ? ??????, ??? ???? ?? ????, ????????? ???; ???? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ???????????. ???? ?????? ?? ????? ? ????????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????????..

????????????? ?????? ?????????:

?? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????, ?? ??????? ????, ???? ?? ????? ??? , ?? ????? ?? ???????????, ???? ??? ??????????, ?? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????? /?????? ?????????? ????????? (???? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ???? – ?? ????????? “now how”- ??????????, ??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ?????????).

?????: ?arketing, ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????, ??????????, ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????: ??????, ? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????????????, ‘????????’ ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????, ??? ?? ?????, ?? ???????/ ??????? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????????????, ??????????? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????: ? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????, ?? ???? ?????, ??? ????????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????-??????? ??? ????????? (????????) ??????, ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????, ? ?????, ? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???, ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??? ??? ? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????. ??? ??????? ???? ???? ? ????????/?????????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????.

? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????, ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????, ???? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? -???? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???, ???? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ????????..

?? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????. ??? ‘???????’, ??? ?? ?????????, ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????.

1.  ????????

? ?????? ??? ?????????, shop [9] ????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????, sales [10]
????? ????? ???????????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????. ?? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????????, Hemorrhoids [11]
??? ?  ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????, ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????.

2.    ?? ????????

? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ? ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ??????????????, ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ?????. ‘??? ??? ?? 1990, ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ???  ??? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???? ?? ???????????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????. ?? ?????????????? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? (????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????) ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ??????.

?? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ????????? – ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????- , ???? ???????????? ???? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????. ??????, ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????[1] [12], ? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ???????? (?????????, ??????, ?????????? ????????????? ?.?.?). ????????, ?? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????  ???? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????.

3.   ?????????  ????????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????

???????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ????.  ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????: ? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?????????, ?? ????? ???? ???????????????? ??? ??? ????????????.

????????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????:

?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????, ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????????. ??????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????:

???? ????? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????????/ ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????.

?????????? ???????????:

4.      ?????? ?????????

?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????.

?????????? ?????????:

???? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ????????. ? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????????  (????????? ??????????? ???????/ ????????? ????????, ????????????? ???????? ???????  ???????????/ ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????) ?? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????????. ????????, ?? ????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? (?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????). ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????. ? ?????????? ?????? , ???????, ??????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? «??????????? ????????[2] [13]» ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ??????????.

‘???? ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????:

??? ????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????:

??????????? ??? ?? ????????,  ????????????? ? ?????? ???? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? (?? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????, ?????, ?????????? ???????, ???, ????, ??????????, ???????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????? ???) ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? – ????????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????.


[1] [16] European Environment Agency- EEA

 

[2] [17] Eco-driving

[3] [18] Carbon footprint

[4] [19] ?? European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS)

?????????? ?????????

? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????, order [20]
???? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????????. ???????? ? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????, pharm [21] ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????. ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? (GHG), syringe [22]
?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????, ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? (EU-ETS). ?? EU-ETS ????? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? 12,600 ????????????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? –??????? 140 ???? ??????— ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ???????????, ?????????, ???. ?? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ??? 40% ??????? ??? ????????? ????????. ???? ???? ???? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????.

???? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? 2005 ?? ??????, ????????? ?????????, ????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????????. ????? ??????  ????????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? GHG. ? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????, ??? ????????? ??? CO2, ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????????? ????, ???? ? ???????? ??? –?? ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ???? ??– ??? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????.

?? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????, ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????, ??????????????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? EU-ETS, ???????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? CO2. ???? ???????? ??? ????????? 1, ? ???? ??? ?????? EU-ETS ?????????? ??? 30€/tCO2 ??? ?? ??? ????????? ?????? (2009-?? ??????) ????????? ???? ??????? ??? 15€/tCO2. ??? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??? 100€/tCO2 ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ? ??. ?? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ??????, ?????????? ???? ????? ?? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ??? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????. ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????. ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ???????????? EU-ETS, ?? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? (2013- 20) ?? ????????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???? ????????????. ??? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???? ?? 2013.

????????? 1. ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? EU ETS ??? ??? ??????? ???????? 2005 – ?????????? 2009


[23]

 ????: European Climate Exchange

????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????, ?? ????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ????, ?? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???’ ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????. ? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???, ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ????, ???? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ??? 2005 ???????? ??? 25% ??? ????????, ?? 519% ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????? (????? ??? ?????), ?? 8,25% ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ?? 38.259 ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ??????????. ????????, ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???. ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ??? ????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????. ?????? ??? ???? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????.

????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????

????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????, ?? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????????. ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ????, ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????, ???? ????? –???? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????— ??? ??? ?????? –???? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????. ?? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ?????:

?? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???????????, ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????????. ????–????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????.  ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? (CCS), ? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???? ??????, ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????. ??????, ? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ??????. ????????, ? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ?? ?? ????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????.

????????, ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????, ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????????. ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????.

???????? ????????? ???????????? (??????????? ?????)[1] [24]

?? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? EU-ETS, ??? ??? ??? ???????????? (??????/????). ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????, ???? ?????????? ??? ????????, ?? ????? ???? ?????????.  ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? CO2, ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????????????. ???????? ?? ?????? ???’ ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? (???? ??? ?????????? ? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????) ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ???????. ? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????????????? ??? ?????????, ????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ????. ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ????. ????????, ??? ?????? ??????????????????, ? ????????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???? ?????????? (?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????). ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????, ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????? ????????? (?.?.?.) ?? ????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???.

???????? ????????? ???????? (??????????? ?????)

? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????.  ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????????? ??? ???????, ????? ? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? (????  ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? 36%). ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????. ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????. ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????????, ??????? ????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????.  ????????, ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????.

???? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???, ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????????????. ??? ?????????? ?????, ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????????, ????????? ? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ???, ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????, ??? ????? ????????? ? ??? ????? ????????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ????????????. ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????, ???? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? (€/kwh) ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ?? ??????????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????.

?? ????? ?????? ???????????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????. ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? (??????? ?? ??? ??????????), ?? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ????????, ?? ???? ???? ???????????????? ???? ??????????, ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????????. ???? ?????????? ???? ????? ??? ? ?????????????????? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????????, ???? ??? ??? ????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ? ?????????????. ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? (MARR) ??? ?????????. ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ?? MARR, ???? ????? ??????????????. ???? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ???????. ???? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??? ?? ??????, ??? ????????, ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ????. ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ? ?????? ??? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? 2008 ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??  ???????????? ???? ?????? (0,55 ??? 0,50 €/Kwh ??????????) ??????????? ???? ????? ???? ????????????? ?????????????, ????????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ? ???????? ??? ? ??????? (?? ????????? 0,35 ??? 0,30 €/Kwh ??????????). ????????, ?? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????. ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????.

???????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????

????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ????? ???? ??????, ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????. ????????, ???? ?????????? ??? ????????, ????? ??? ??????  ?? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????????. ??? ??????????, ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????????? («???????????» ???? ????? ? ??????? ????????) ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????. ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????, ???? ??? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????. ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????????????? ???? ????? ????????.

? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????????. ?? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?????.  ?? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????. ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????, ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????.


[1] [25] ?? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???? emissions performance and technology standards.