Σας ενημερώνουμε ότι η επεξεργασία των 82 κατατεθειμένων προτάσεων βρίσκεται σε εξέλιξη.

Κλιματικές αλλαγές, ενέργεια και το Σύστημα Εμπορίας Εκπομπών – Η αναγκαιότητα σχεδιασμού ενός ολοκληρωμένου συστήματος πολιτικών

22 Μάρτιος, 2011 RSS Σχολίων Εκτυπώστε το Άρθρο 3.602 Προβολές
Ευτύχιος Σαρτζετάκης Αν. καθηγητής, Τμήμα Οικονομικών Επιστημών, Πανεπιστήμιο Μακεδονίας

1. ?????????? ?????????

 

1.1. ????????? ??????????

??? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????????, there ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? (???????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????) ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????: ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????, and ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????.

?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? (?????????????)

?? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????, more ??? ??????? ???????? , ????????? ?? ?? ?????? , ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ????. ?????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????, ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ??????, ??? ???? ?????? ??????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????.

?????? ?????????

?) ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????.

?1) ???????????? ???

?2) ???????? ???????????? ?????????.

?) ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????.

?1) ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???

?2) ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????????.

?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????, ???? ????? ? ??????????? ? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???.

?1). ???????????? ?????????.

????????? ??? ??? “?????” ??????????, ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ??? 1000 EU ??? ?.?. ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ????????? (15-20%). ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? – ????, ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?? ??????????, ??? ?? ???? ???, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????, ??? ?? ?????? ?? 20% ????? ?? 2020.

?????? ?????? ?? ???????????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????, ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???. ? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?? ???????? Albeido ?ffect, ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? 80% ??? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????? -??????, ??? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????. ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????, ??? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????.

??????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ??? ????? ?????? ?? “???????? ????????????-??????? ?????????” (?2), ???? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????????? [PV Technology, Markets and Trends, 4-5 ????????? 2010], ???? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ????????.

?1) ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????????

????????? ??? ??? “?????????” ??? ??? “?????”, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? (??? 80 Co), ?? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????, ???? ?????????, ?.?., ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????/????????????. ?? ??????? ???? ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? (70-80%).

?????? ??? ?? ??????????, ??? ? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ????, ????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? (??????? ??????? ?????????? / absorption heat pumps ).

?2) ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? (>600 Co ).

?? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ????????, ??????? ?? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?.?. ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????. ?? ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??? ???? ???, ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? (??. “thermal solar 1” ??? Edison ? ?? ????????? ????????? “Sahara project”). ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? «stirling system P2», ?????????? ??????????? (?? ????????? ???.).

1.2. ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????.

? ????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ?) ??? (?2) ????????? ????????????? ??????????, ??? ?) ??? (?1) ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?) ??? ??? (?2) ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? (>600 Co) ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ????? ??????????? – ??? ??????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???? ???.

?? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????:

  • ·? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????.
  • ·?? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????, ???? ?? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????.
  • ·? ????????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? (??. ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????????).
  • ·? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????.

2. ?? ????????? ??? ????????- ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????

2.1.??????? 1:

«????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ???????»

 

2.1.1. ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????:

???????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? «?rompe», ???? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?? 1881 ??? ??? E. Morse ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? 1964 ??? ??? ??????????? Felix Trompe.

?? ????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????, ?????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ???????????.

?? ??????? ????, ?? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???? ???, ?????, ?? ? ?? ???? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????????????? ????? ???????????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ???.

? ????????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?rompe, ??? ???????????, ???? ?? ???????? ??????????????:

?) ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????, ??? ???????????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????,

?) ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? (????),

?) ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ( 20 ???? ??? ?.?.),

?) ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? (60 ??? ??? 80% ??? ????????????? ??????? ?????????).

2.1.2. ? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????????:

? ????????? ??? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ????:

?) ???? ????? «?????????» ??????????? ???????? ????????, ? ????? ??????????? ????????? (??. ???. 1) ??? ??? ???? ? ???????? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? (1), ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ????? (2) ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? (3) ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? (4). ?? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??????????? ????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????, ??? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??? ???? ???. ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????: ? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????????????? (???????????? ?????????-?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???????????), ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ? ???????? /??????? ??? ?? ????????????, ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? (????), ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ????????? (???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????).

???. 1 ???? ??? ????????????? ??????????.

???. 2. ???????? ?? ????????.

???. 3. ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????.

2.1.3. ????????????? ??? ????????:

???????????? ? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ???????????, ???? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????:

1. ?? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? (?????????????), ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? (?????).

2.?? ????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ‘?????????’ ??????? ?? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???, ????????, ??? ??????????. ??, ???????, ? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ?? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ???, ????????????? ??? ????? ???? ? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????, ???? ??? ? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????.

2.1.4. ?????????? ??? ????????:

??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????.

 

2.1.5. A??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????:

? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????????? ????????? ?? 6–12 ?????.

??????? 2:

«?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????, ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????. »

2.2.1. ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????:

? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????????????? ???? ???????, ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????. ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????, ???? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????, ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????.

 

2.2.2. ? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????????:

?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????, ?? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????. ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ??????????, ????????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????????. ? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????.

???? ??????, ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ????, ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????, ???? ????????? ?????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ????. ????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????, ???? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????.

?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????, ????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????. ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ???? ????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????, ???? ????????????. ????? ???? ?? ??????????, ??????????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? (?.?. ????????????????? ????????????).

2.2.3. ????????????? ??? ????????:

??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ?????, ???????? ?????? / ?????? ????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? (?????, ?????????, ???), ?????? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????, ????? ???, ???????????, ????????? ??? ????????????????? ????????????.

2.1.4. ?????????? ??? ????????:

?? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????, ????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????, ???? ???????????.

??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????.

2.1.5. ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????:

? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?? 12–24 ?????, ??????? ?? ??? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????.

3. ?????????.
?????????: ?? ??????? «Stirling P2»

The Stirling system P2 is a solar one with an electrical output power of 800 W, driven by concentrated solar heat radiation. The entire installation is mobile. An automatic tracking system is adjusting the concentrator to the sun. The solar system is equipped with an integrated alternator. It delivers up to 6.4 kWh per day electrical energy, sufficient for the needs of a small household. Due to its coolant circuit, the system provides as well the supply of hot water corresponding to a heat amount of 24 kWh per day, which is equivalent to the heat generation of 6 m² solar thermal collector area. Here, all predicted power and energy data of the P2 engine are referred to a solar direct radiation of 1 kW/m². Both systems are based on the same basic Stirling engine. The costs of this engine are significantly lower than other solutions on the market. The design is protected by several patents.

?) ????????? ?????? ??????????

?????? ????????????

?????? ??????: ?? ??????, ?? ???? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???????????, ?? ????? ????????????? ???? ?? ??????/ ????????? ????????? ????????? ?/??? ?????????. ?? ???, ???? ?????, ??? ???? ???????, ?? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ? ??????, ??? ???? ?? ????, ????????? ???; ???? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ???????????. ???? ?????? ?? ????? ? ????????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????????..

????????????? ?????? ?????????:

?? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????, ?? ??????? ????, ???? ?? ????? ??? , ?? ????? ?? ???????????, ???? ??? ??????????, ?? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????? /?????? ?????????? ????????? (???? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ???? – ?? ????????? “now how”- ??????????, ??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ?????????).

?????: ?arketing, ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????, ??????????, ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????: ??????, ? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????????????, ‘????????’ ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????, ??? ?? ?????, ?? ???????/ ??????? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????????????, ??????????? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????: ? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????, ?? ???? ?????, ??? ????????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????-??????? ??? ????????? (????????) ??????, ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????, ? ?????, ? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???, ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??? ??? ? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????. ??? ??????? ???? ???? ? ????????/?????????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????.

? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????, ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????, ???? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? -???? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???, ???? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ????????..

?? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????. ??? ‘???????’, ??? ?? ?????????, ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????.

1.  ????????

? ?????? ??? ?????????, shop ????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????, sales
????? ????? ???????????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????. ?? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????????, Hemorrhoids
??? ?  ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????, ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????.

2.    ?? ????????

? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ? ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ??????????????, ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ?????. ‘??? ??? ?? 1990, ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ???  ??? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???? ?? ???????????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????. ?? ?????????????? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? (????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????) ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ??????.

?? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ????????? – ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????- , ???? ???????????? ???? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????. ??????, ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????[1], ? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ???????? (?????????, ??????, ?????????? ????????????? ?.?.?). ????????, ?? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????  ???? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????.

3.   ?????????  ????????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????

???????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ????.  ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????: ? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?????????, ?? ????? ???? ???????????????? ??? ??? ????????????.

????????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????:

?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????, ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????????. ??????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????:

  • ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? CO2.
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  • ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? (????????, ??????????, car pooling ?.?.)
  • ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????????/ ????????? ??? ??????/ ?????????? ?????? ????????.

???? ????? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????????/ ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????.

?????????? ???????????:

  • ????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????,  Euro 5 ??? ????. ???????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????? (ITS) ?????? ????? ??? ?????????  ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????????? ?? ????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ????? ????????? (?.?. ??????: ???????? ????? ?????????? – ?????? ??????? 30-40% ??? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????).
  • ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? «????????????» ?????????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????.
  • ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????.

4.      ?????? ?????????

?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????.

?????????? ?????????:

???? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ????????. ? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????????  (????????? ??????????? ???????/ ????????? ????????, ????????????? ???????? ???????  ???????????/ ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????) ?? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????????. ????????, ?? ????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? (?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????). ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????. ? ?????????? ?????? , ???????, ??????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? «??????????? ????????[2]» ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ??????????.

‘???? ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????:

  • ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????/ ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????
  • ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? (????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ????????, ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????, ???????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?.?.?.)
  • ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ??????????????, ???????? ?????????? ???
  • ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????
  • ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????, ???????? ??? ????-???????? (teleworking) ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?.?.?
  • ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? (car-pooling) ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???/???? ?????? ???????? (?? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? -enterprise mobility management), ??????? (school travel plans) ???
  • ???????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? (??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????, ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??) ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????

??? ????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????:

  • ? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????, ? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????????? ???? ??? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? –?????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????.
  • ? ??????????? ??? ?????????? (???????????) ????????????[3] ??? ??? ?????????, ???? ?? ???????? ? ???????,  ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????.
  • ??????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ????????.
  • ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????[4] .
  • ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????

??????????? ??? ?? ????????,  ????????????? ? ?????? ???? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? (?? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????, ?????, ?????????? ???????, ???, ????, ??????????, ???????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????? ???) ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? – ????????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????.

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