Σας ενημερώνουμε ότι η επεξεργασία των 82 κατατεθειμένων προτάσεων βρίσκεται σε εξέλιξη.

Επαναχρησιμοποίηση αστικών υγρών αποβλήτων στην Ελλάδα -1

11 Απρίλιος, 2011 RSS Σχολίων Εκτυπώστε το Άρθρο 2.469 Προβολές
Ανδρέας Αγγελάκης Πολιτικός Μηχανικός και Γεωπόνος, Συν. ερευνητής του ΕΘ.Ι.ΑΓ.Ε. και Tεχνικός Σύμβουλος της Ένωσης των ΔΕΥΑ Ελλάδας & Ν. Παρανυχιανάκης, Λέκτορας, Τμήμα Μηχανικών Περιβάλλοντος, Πολυτεχνείο Κρήτης

????????? ?????????

?????? ? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????, viagra here ???? ??? ??? ???????? ?????-???? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? 91/271/EEC (EU, phlebologist 1991). ?? ??? ????. 5673/400/14.3.97 ????? ????????? ???????, pulmonologist ? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?’ ???? ??? ??. ??????? ?? ?????, ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ????????????. ??????, ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????. ? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????. ???? ?????????????, ???? ?????? 91/271/?C, ????? 12 ???. 1, ?????????? ???? ??? «????????????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????».

? N. 1739/87 (????????? ?????????, 1987) ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????. ? ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ?,?? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? «???????? ?????-????? ???». ????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????.

????????, ? ?????????? ?. 3199/03 (???????, 2003) ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? (?????? 60/2000/EC). ???? ???? ?’ ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????. ????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????????, ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? 60/2000/EC (EU, 2000). ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????, ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????. ????, ?? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ??????????. ????, ???????????? ????? ??? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??, ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????. ?? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ????????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???????, ?? ???? ??????:

(?)    ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?. 3199/03, ????, ???? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????, ??? ?? ????????????? ?? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ???? (??????? ????????????, ??????????? ???? ?????, ????????????, ?????????? ???????????, ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ??????????????????? ??? ????).

(?)    ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????????, ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????.

(?)     ?? ?????? ????? ??? ? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????????????? ??? ??????, ???? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????.

? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??’ ????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ?????? 1. ??? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??? ????????????????????? 198.250 m3/d ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? 50.000 ???. ????????? ???, ????? ?????? 10.250 m3/d ?????? ??? ?????????? 1.500 ???. ????? ????????. ?????, ???????????? ??? ????????????????????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ?’ ?????? ??????????? ??? 132.500 m3/d ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??????????????????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? 1.

 ??????? 1. ????????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????

????

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???????????? (m³/d)

?????? (???.)

?????????? ????

??????? ????????? ???????? 198.250

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?. ?????????

175.000

25.000

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3.500

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400

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?. ?????????

800

1.500

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4.500

1.000

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550

14.500

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3.500

5.000

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10.000

??????? ????? ????????  10.250

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4.000

500

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500

80

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?. ??????

200

100

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100

50

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500

100

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1.450

300

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1.500

250

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2.000

?????? ???????????????????   132.500

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28.000

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22.500

12.000

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15.000

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18.000

  3.500

  3,500

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30.000

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341.000

(

?0,?0.(8.150?m3???????????????? ????/yr ? 0,9%)


????: ??????????????, ?. ?., ??????????, ?.?. ??? ????????, ?. ??? ????????? ?. ?. (2009). ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????. ???????? ¨????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? (?????). ??????, ?. xxiv, 160.
?????? 1. ?????????????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????

????? ???????????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? 1965 (????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????, 1965), ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????????????????. ??????, ???? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??. ????, ? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????? (Angelakis et al., 1999).

?????????

???? ??????, ????, ??? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????, ???? ?????????? ? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????????, ????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? (Tsagarakis et al., 2001). ????, ??????, ???? ?????????????, ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ???????????????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????? (WHO, 1989 ??? US EPA, 2004). ??? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????? ???????? (?????? ??????, ?????? ?.?.) ??? ? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??????????. ??? ???? ????????? ????, ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????, ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????, ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ???? ????????. ???? ????? ??????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ???????. ????, ?? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????????, ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????? (???? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????).
???? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????????, ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ??????????????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????????. ???????? ??????????, ???? ? ??????? ???????, ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? (FAO) ??? ??? ??? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? (WHO), ???????? ??? ? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????????????? ??????? ????? ???? ???, ????, ???????, ???????, ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? 25 ??? 65%. ? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????. ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ?/???? ????? ??? ??????, ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??-????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ?? ? ???????? ???? ????????????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????. ??????, ??????? ????? ??? ??, ???? ? ??????, ? ??????, ? ???????, ? ?????? ??? ? ??????????, ????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? (E??, 2000 ??? Marecos Do Monte, 2007).
??’ ?????? ???? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? (Angelakis et al., 1999 ??? Bahri and Brissaud, 2002) . ???????????, ???, ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? (????). ?? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????, ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????. ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ?????????: ???? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????????.
?????, ? ?????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ????????. ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ? ????????? ??? ???? «?????????» ??? «????????». ??????, ??? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????????????????? ????, ? ???????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????. ????????? ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????????, ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????????????? ???????? (?? ??????????) ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????. ????? ??????? ????? ??? ? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????. ??? ???? ??????, ????? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????.

 

????????????

  • Angelakis, A. N., Marecos do Monte, M.H., Bontoux, L., and Asano, T. (1999). The status of wastewater reuse practice in the Mediterranean basin. Water Research 33(10): 2201-2217.
  • Bahri, A. and Brissaud, F. (2002). Guidelines for Municipal Water Reuse in the Mediterranean Countries. WHO regional Office for Europe, Euro Project Office, MAP,Athens,Greece.
  • ??? (2000). ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????????????????? ???????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ????? ???. ???., ????????? LIFE 99/ENV/GR/000590. ???, ?????.
  • EU (1991). Council Directive concerning Urban Wastewater Treatment. 91/271 EEC of May 21, 1991, OJ NO L135/40 of May 30, 1991.
  • EU (2000). Council Directive concerning Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy. 2000/60/EC of 23 October 2002, “Official Journal of the European Communities”, L327 (22 Dec.).
  • Marecos Do Monte, M. H. (2007) Guidelines for good practice of water reuse for irrigation: Portuguese Standard NP 4434. In: Wastewater Reuse: Risk Assessment, Decision-Making and Environmental Security (ed. M. K. Zaidi), pp. 253–265. Springer,Amsterdam. TheNetherlands.
  • ??????????????, ?. ?., ??????????, ?.?. ??? ????????, ?. ??? ????????? ?. ?. (2009). ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????. ???????? ¨????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? (?????). ??????, ?. xxiv, 160.
  • Tsagarakis, K.P., Mara, D.D., Horan, N.J., and Angelakis A. (2001). Institutional status and structure of wastewater quality management inGreece. Water Policy 3 (1): 81-99.
  • Tsagarakis, K.P., Dialynas, G.E., and Angelakis, A.N. (2004). Water resources management in Crete (Greece), including water recycling and reuse and proposed quality criteria. Agricultural Water Management 66 (1): 35-47.
  • WHO (1989). Health Guidelines for the Use of Wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture. Report of a WHO Scientific Group WHO Technical Report Series 778, WHO, Geneva. Swisstzerland.
  • ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? (1965). ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????. ????????? ??? ??????????? E1? 221/1965 ????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????, ?????.
  • ????????? ????????? (1987). ? ?.1739/87 ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ??????. ??. ?????????, ?????.
  • ?.??.??.??. (????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????) (2003). ? ?. 3199/03 ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????. ?.??.??.??. ?????.

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