Σας ενημερώνουμε ότι η επεξεργασία των 82 κατατεθειμένων προτάσεων βρίσκεται σε εξέλιξη.

Περιβαλλοντική πολιτική και βιώσιμη ανάπτυξη – Σχέση οικονομικών και οικολογικών συστημάτων

27 Μάιος, 2011 RSS Σχολίων Εκτυπώστε το Άρθρο 2.268 Προβολές
Αλέξανδρος Αϊβαζίδης Καθηγητής, Τμήμα Μηχανικών Περιβάλλοντος, ΔΠΘ

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????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ??? ? ????????? ??? ? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????????????. ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????????, this web ????????? ?????????, find ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??-???????? ????????, cardiology ????? ??????????????? ???, ???? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????????, ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????????. ??-????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????, ?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????: ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ??? ????????; ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????;

?? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????, ???. ?????????? ?????????, ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????, ???. ???????, ?????, ?????? ????????? ??? ????????????. ????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????? – ????? ??? ?????? -???????? ?????, ????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????. ? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ???????????. ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????, ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ?????.

??? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? «??????? ?????»:

?) ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????

?) ??????????? ??????? ?????

?) ?? ?????? (???????????) ?????

?) ?? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????, ?? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????, ??????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????   ??????????? ???-??????????? ??????? ??? ? ???????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????????.

?) ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? –??????????? ????. ???? ?? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????? (??? ????????????) ???????.

?) ?? ?????? ????? (know-how, ???????, ??????????, ????????) ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????, ?? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????.

???? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????. ??????????? ??????? ????? (?.?. ??????? ??? ??????) ???????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????. ???? ???????? ??? ? ??????????? ?????????, ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???????????. ??????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ??? ??-??????????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????????, ???. ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????????. ? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?.?. ??????? ?????, ???????? ????? ? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????, ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????, ???????? ???????? ?????-/????????????, ????? ???????, ????????????, ??????-?????-???????????????, ??????? ??????, ????????? ??? ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? (???????????? ? ????????) ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????.

??? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????, ? ????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???????. ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ?????, ???? ??????? ?????, ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? «???????????????» ??? ??????????, ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ???????????? (?????????????? ??? ?????????????). ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????, ??? ??? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????????. ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????? -??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ? ???? ??????!-, ???? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ????, ?????? ??? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????.

???? ?????? 1 ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ??????, ?? ???? ???????? ??? O?CD ??? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????. ??? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ???? ? ???????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ????, ??????????, ??? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????, ?? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? (???????? ??????) ??? ???? (!) ???? (????????? ??????) ???? ???????.

??????? ????? ???????? ??????????

????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ? ???????? ?????????? ???? ????????  ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????. ???? ?????????????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????????, ???? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?????? ??????????.

?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? (??? ??????? ??????) ????????? ???? Adam Smith (1723-1790), ? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????, ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????. ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????. ? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???????????, ? ?????? ??? ? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? 50 ??????????? ????????. ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????, ?? ??? ?? ????????, ???? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? ? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????-?????????? ?????.

?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? 400 ??????????? ????????, ??? ??????? 6,9 ?????????????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? 21?? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????? 9-12 ?????????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????????????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????????. ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???, ???? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????? ????, ????, ???? ?? ???? ???????????? ?????! ????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????. ???? ??? ???? ????????????  ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ? Hermann Daly, ? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? “Steady-state Economics” ?????????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????.

? Daly ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? (??????????) ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????????:

1.      “Much confusion could be avoided we could agree to use word growth to refer only to the quantitative scale it physical dimensions of the economy. Qualitative improvement could be labelled development. Then we could speak of a steady – state economy as one that develops without growing, just as the planet earth, of which the economy is an open system, develops without growing. Limits to growth do not imply limits to development”

2.      “Sustainable development is about sufficiency as well as efficiency. Sustainable development ultimately implies a stationary population”

3.      “Sustainable development does not imply constant technology. Technological progress should be efficiency – increasing and not throughput- increasing”

4.      “The most obvious principle of sustainability is that renewable resources should be exploited on a sustained yield basis”

5.      “The main principle of sustainable development is to limit the human scale to a level that, if not optimal, is at least within carrying capacity and therefore sustainable”

6.      “Non-renewable resources should be exploited, but at a rate equal to the creation of renewable substitutes”

???? ???????????? ??? Daly ????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????, ???? ???? ??? ??????????, ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????. ? ?????????, ? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ???????????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????. ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ? Hans Jonas, ? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? “Das Prinzip Verantwortung” ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????????. ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?  L. Kohr  ??? ?? ?????? ??? “Das Ende der Grossen – Die Rückkehr zum menschlichen Mass”, ???? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???? ???? ???????? ? E. F. Schuhmacher ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? «Small is beautiful” ? ??? ??????????? “Think globally, act regionally”

???? ? ?????????? ??????, ???? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????, ???? ?? ????? ? ?????????? ???????, ???? ? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????. ? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?? ???? “Steady – state Economics” ??? H. Daly. ? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????, ???? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???? ?????????.

?????????? ????????????? ?’??? ??????? ?????????? ???????

???? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???? 85%  ?? ??-???????????? (???????????) ???????? ??????. ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ????????. ?? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ????, ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????! ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?????????? 5-50, ??? ?? ??? ??????? 2-20% ??? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? (???????????) ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? 40 ??????.

???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ???? ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????. ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?????????????. ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????, ?????? ??? ??????????. ??? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ????? 1, ???? ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????.

??? ????? 2 ????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????????. ????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? 2. ?????? ????????????? ???????? – ??? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? – ??? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????. ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ???. ??? «??????? ??? ????????» ?????-??????????? ???? ????, ??? ??? ??????? ??????, ???? ???? ????? ??????????.

???? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????????? (??????????? ???????? ?????????), ???. ?? ???? ?????, ?? ???? ???? ???????? ?????????? (?? ????????) ???????? ????????? ?? ?????, ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? (?????????). ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????? ??? «???? ???????????», ??? “Sustainable or Syntropic Engineering”  ?? ?????????:  «Multidisciplinary restructuring (re- engineering) of complex integrated anthropogenic systems within the context of economic, environmental and social sustainability, focusing on the minimization of avoidable (unsustainable) entropy generation, according to the function of natural Eco-systems! This can be practically obtained by a “step-by-step” reduction / minimization of conventional low-entropy non renewable resources consumption, maximization of efficiency in using them, or  by substitution with renewable ones, by recovery, reuse, recycle, by material or energetic valorization of high-entropy “secondary” industrial resources (solid waste, wastewater, off-gases) and, in general, by creation of syntropy (Material Flow Management and a “Cradle to Cradle” Approach).

??? (??? ?????) ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ???? ??????????, ?????? ?????????? ???????? (?? ????? ????????? ???????) ??? ???? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????????, ???? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??-???????? ????????? ???????????? ?? CO2, ???? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? (?????).

??? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? (?? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????) ??? ???????????? ????????? ?????? (?? ???? ??? ????????, ??????????, ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????). ?? ?????? ??????? ?????, ??? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????, ??????? ????????, ? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??- ???????????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???? ?????????, ?? ????????? ???????;

? ?.?. ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? (????? 3). “Delinking of economic growth and energy /resources consumption”, ????? ?? ???????- ??????! ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? (GDP) ???? ?????? 30% ?? ??????? ???????? 15 ???? ????? ??????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ??? ???????? CO2 ???? 15% ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? (??????) ???? 25%!??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ? ???????? ?????, ???? ?? ????????? ???????, ? ???? ?? ??? ??????????? (??? ??????????? ???? ????????) ?????????????? ?????????, ???? ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????????????? ???????????. ?????? ??? ????? ????????, ???? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ????? ??? ????????????? ??????. ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?80, ???. ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????? 1.000.000 ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? «??????????» ??? ??? «??????? ?????????».

???????????? – ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ??????

?????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ?.?.?., ???? ?? ????????? ??????, ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????, ????? ??? ???? ???????????????????, ???. ??????????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????.

?? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? (Co-Digestion), ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????????? (CHP), ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? / ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ???????.

? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???? (??????????) ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? – ?????? ???????????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? (self-sufficiency of needs), ?? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????. ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????, ???? ?.?. ????????????, ??????????????, ??????????? ????????, ?????? ????, ????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ?????? ???????????  ??? ?????? ????? ?????, ?? ?????, ?? ????????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? (CHP), ?? ???????? ?????????????????? ?85% ???, ??????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????  ? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????. ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? (???????????) ????????? ??? ????????????? ??-??????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????????? ????????.

? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??? 15-25% (???? ??????????? ???) ?? ????? ?85% ??? ??????????????? ??????, ?? ??? ?????????? ?????  ?????? ??? ?????????, ?????????????? ????? ?? 3,5%  ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? (35 ?????? 1000 KWh).

?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????????????? (??? ?????) ? ??? ???????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????????. ????, ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ????? ?????????? ?? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?????????. ? ??????? ???? ????? ???????????? ???, ????????, ???? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????.

???? ????????

 

???? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ????????????, ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ????. ?? ??????? ?????, ??? ?? ????????? ???? ???????;

?? ????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????????, ????????? ? ??????? ??? ???????. ?? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? «High-Tech», ????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ???????????. ????? ????????????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????????, ??? ???? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? «Bussiness as usual». ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ???????????, ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????????. ? ??????????? ??? ?????????, ? ????????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????, ? ???????? ?????????? «??????? ?????????», ?? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????????.

Sustainability remains still a vision, but is not an illusion!

??????? 1: ?????????????? ?????–         ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? –

–         (?????? ?? ????, ???? ???????? ?90, ???? OECD)

??????? ????????? ??????
?????? ???? ???????

??????

 

?????? ???? ???????

??????

?????? 11,8 * 109  214 9,1 * 109 202
???????? 25 * 109 312 25,5 * 109 343
???????? 4 * 109 500 3 * 109 375
?????? 0,4 * 109 43 0,030 * 109 3

 

????? 1. ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????????

????: Frey, B. Lohe. Chemie Ingenieur Technik (70) 51 – 63.

 

????? 2. ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????

 

????? 3. DE-LINKING OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND RESOURCES CONSUMPTION IN GERMANY

 

 

????: Frey, B. Lohe. Chemie Ingenieur Technik (70) 51 – 63.

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